Newton’s First Law:
The ball is on the catapult’s arm and is at rest. However, when we let go of the arm, the force of the rubber bands caused the arm to swing forward, which caused the ball to launch. Therefore, the ball is no longer at rest and started to move. Gravity also played a role by acting upon the ball, pulling it towards the ground, and caused it to stop.
Newton’s Second Law:
If the ball had a greater mass, it would require a greater force to launch it farther. So if the mass doubled, it would take twice the amount of force to launch the same distance; this is because mass and force are proportional. Also, if the mass doubled, the acceleration would be two times smaller because mass and acceleration are inversely proportional. If more force was applied to the ball, its acceleration would increase with the same amount; this is because force and acceleration are proportional.
Newton’s Third Law:
If nothing is keeping our catapult in place, then the catapult would move backwards with the same amount of force as the force the arm applied on the catapult because of Newton’s third law.